A zooarchaeological perspective on testudine bones from Hoabinhian hunter-gatherer archaeological assemblages in Southeast Asia
Zooarchaeological investigation of the Hoabinhian exploitation of reptiles and amphibians in Thailand and Cambodia with a focus on the Yellow-headed tortoise (Indotestudo elongata (Blyth, 1854))
Recommendation: posted 01 September 2023, validated 01 September 2023
Blasco, R. (2023) A zooarchaeological perspective on testudine bones from Hoabinhian hunter-gatherer archaeological assemblages in Southeast Asia. Peer Community in Archaeology, 100329. 10.24072/pci.archaeo.100329
The study of the evolution of the human diet has been a central theme in numerous archaeological and paleoanthropological investigations. By reconstructing diets, researchers gain deeper insights into how humans adapted to their environments. The analysis of animal bones plays a crucial role in extracting dietary information. Most studies involving ancient diets rely heavily on zooarchaeological examinations, which, due to their extensive history, have amassed a wealth of data.
During the Pleistocene–Holocene periods, testudine bones have been commonly found in a multitude of sites. The use of turtles and tortoises as food sources appears to stretch back to the Early Pleistocene [1-4]. More importantly, these small animals play a more significant role within a broader debate. The exploitation of tortoises in the Mediterranean Basin has been examined through the lens of optimal foraging theory and diet breadth models (e.g. [5-10]). According to the diet breadth model, resources are incorporated into diets based on their ranking and influenced by factors such as net return, which in turn depends on caloric value and search/handling costs . Within these theoretical frameworks, tortoises hold a significant position. Their small size and sluggish movement require minimal effort and relatively simple technology for procurement and processing. This aligns with optimal foraging models in which the low handling costs of slow-moving prey compensate for their small size [5-6,9]. Tortoises also offer distinct advantages. They can be easily transported and kept alive, thereby maintaining freshness for deferred consumption [12-14]. For example, historical accounts suggest that Mexican traders recognised tortoises as portable and storable sources of protein and water . Furthermore, tortoises provide non-edible resources, such as shells, which can serve as containers. This possibility has been discussed in the context of Kebara Cave  and noted in ethnographic and historical records (e.g. ). However, despite these advantages, their slow growth rate might have rendered intensive long-term predation unsustainable.
While tortoises are well-documented in the Southeast Asian archaeological record, zooarchaeological analyses in this region have been limited, particularly concerning prehistoric hunter-gatherer populations that may have relied extensively on inland chelonian taxa. With the present paper Bochaton et al.  aim to bridge this gap by conducting an exhaustive zooarchaeological analysis of turtle bone specimens from four Hoabinhian hunter-gatherer archaeological assemblages in Thailand and Cambodia. These assemblages span from the Late Pleistocene to the first half of the Holocene. The authors focus on bones attributed to the yellow-headed tortoise (Indotestudo elongata), which is the most prevalent taxon in the assemblages. The research include osteometric equations to estimate carapace size and explore population structures across various sites. The objective is to uncover human tortoise exploitation strategies in the region, and the results reveal consistent subsistence behaviours across diverse locations, even amidst varying environmental conditions. These final proposals suggest the possibility of cultural similarities across different periods and regions in continental Southeast Asia.
In summary, this paper  represents a significant advancement in the realm of zooarchaeological investigations of small prey within prehistoric communities in the region. While certain approaches and issues may require further refinement, they serve as a comprehensive and commendable foundation for assessing human hunting adaptations.
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 Bochaton, C., Chantasri, S., Maneechote, M., Claude, J., Griggo, C., Naksri, W., Forestier, H., Sophady, H., Auertrakulvit, P., Bowonsachoti, J. and Zeitoun, V. (2023) Zooarchaeological investigation of the Hoabinhian exploitation of reptiles and amphibians in Thailand and Cambodia with a focus on the Yellow-headed Tortoise (Indotestudo elongata (Blyth, 1854)), BioRXiv, 2023.04.27.538552 , ver. 3 peer-reviewed and recommended by Peer Community in Archaeology. https://doi.org/10.1101/2023.04.27.538552v3
The recommender in charge of the evaluation of the article and the reviewers declared that they have no conflict of interest (as defined in the code of conduct of PCI) with the authors or with the content of the article. The authors declared that they comply with the PCI rule of having no financial conflicts of interest in relation to the content of the article.
This work has been done thanks to the support of several funding agencies: the FYSSEN foundation, the DIM-MAP funded by the Region île-de-France, the French Ministry of Europe and Foreign Affairs, and the IRN PalBioDivASE 0846 funded by the CNRS. It was also supported by the Mission Préhistorique Franco-Cambodgienne and the Mission Paléolithique Franco-Thaïe of the French Ministry of Europe and Foreign Affairs (MEAE, Paris).
Reviewed by Iratxe Boneta, 15 Aug 2023
Evaluation round #1
DOI or URL of the preprint: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2023.04.27.538552v1
Version of the preprint: 1
Author's Reply, 09 Aug 2023
Decision by Ruth Blasco, posted 06 Jul 2023, validated 06 Jul 2023
Dear Bochaton and colleagues
Thank you for submitting your manuscript to PCI Archaeol.
We have received comments from two reviewers on your study. You will see that, while they find your work of interest, they have raised some points that need to be addressed. I think the paper should become acceptable for recommendation pending suitable moderate revision and modification in light of the appended comments (please note the reviewers have provided two attachements).
One point that both reviewers emphasize is that equifinality issues (ie, different actions resulting in the same taphonomic signatures) could be explained in more detail. Similarly, the subsistence strategies and their cultural signficance could also be discussed in greater depth in the points of critical interpretation. Lastly, please pay special attention to the language. The manuscript needs to be deeply edited to facilitate comprehension and have a proper language check.
While revising the manuscript please consider all the reviewers' comments carefully, and explain in detail how you addressed the reviewers' criticisms (by providing suitable rebuttals for any comments not addressed).
We look forward to receiving your revised manuscript as soon as possible.